Acids and Bases

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Acids and bases are two groups of chemicals that have some things in common when they are dissolved in a liquid such as water.

Acids in water solutions show certain properties. They taste sour and turn litmus paper red. They react with metals like zinc to give off hydrogen.

Bases in water solutions also show certain properties or characteristics. They taste bitter and turn litmus paper blue. They also have a slimy or slippery texture to them.

Differences in Acids and Bases in Solutions

Acids

Bases

Tastes sour

Tastes bitter

Turns litmus paper red

Turns litmus paper blue

Reacts with some metals to give off hydrogen gas.

Feels slimy or slippery to the touch.

 

Acids and bases can also be grouped as inorganic or organic. Below are several charts of some of the acids and bases.

Inorganic and Organic Acids

Inorganic Acids

Organic Acids

Hydrogen Chloride

Citric Acid - found in lemons, times, oranges, pineapples
HO2CCH2C(OH)(CO2H)CH2CO2H,

Hydrogen Sulfide - found in decaying animals, volcanic ashes, some mineral water, unrefined fuels,such as crude oil, coal, natural gases.
H2S

Carbonic Acid - can be found in carbonated drinks
H2CO3

Phosphoric Acid
O4

Hydrogen Cyanide
HCN,

Sulfuric Acid
H2SO4,

 

Salicylic Acid

 

Lactic Acid - found in sour milk, yogurt, cottage cheese
CH3CHOHCO2H,

 

Tartaric Acid - found in grapes
HO2CCHOHCHOHCO2H,

 

 

 

Inorganic and Organic Bases

Inorganic Bases

Organic Bases

Calcium Carbonate - found in calcite, aragonite
CaCO3,

Pyridine

Calcium Hydroxide
Ca(OH)2,

Ethalymine

Sodium Bicarbonate - found in baking soda
NaHCO3,

 

Sodium Carbonate - found in seaweed ash
Na2CO3,

 

Sodium Hydroxide

 

 

 

 

 

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