Mr. Z's Chemistry Unit:  Daily Internet Homework                                     
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Mr. Z's Science Notes

 

Reading Assignment #1: Introduction to Chemistry       TEST REVIEW: Introduction to Chemistry

 

 Mr. Z's Chemistry Internet Questions :        
 

What are elements?   Lesson Review

  1.  Define elements.
  2.  Are elements solids, liquids, or gas at room temperature?
  3.  Can matter be made up of something other then of the elements?
  4.  Can matter be made up of more then one element?
  5.  What elements make up water, salt, sugar?
  6. Sulfate is made up of Sulfur and Oxygen.  Can a chemist break down sulfates into simpler substances?
  7. What is the advantage of using chemical symbols.
  8.  What are the two rules for using symbols?
  9.  What does the symbols Fe, Au, Ag, Pb, N, O, C, S, Ca represent? (see periodic table)


What are atoms?    (see Z-notes)
  1.  Define atom.
  2.  List the four parts of the atomic theory.
  3.  What does the word Atomos mean in Greek?  (Use www.encarta.com)


What are the parts of an Atom?   Lesson Review
  1.  In a table, list the three parts of an atom, their location, mass and "charge"?
  2.  What was the contribution of Thompson to atomic theory?
  3.  What was the contribution of Bohr?
  4.  What was the contribution of Rutherford?
  5.  What was the order of their contributions by date?
  6.  Why is it important for scientists to share their discoveries?


What is atomic number and atomic mass?     Lesson Review
  1.  What does the atomic number stand for?
  2.  In the periodic table, how are elements arranged?
  3.  If an atom contains 12 protons and 15 neutrons, what is its atomic number?
  4.  Why are atoms neutral in charge?
  5.  Using a periodic table, which atom had an atomic number of 20.
  6.  What units are used to measure the mass of an atom?
  7.  Upon which parts of the atoms is this mass unit predicated?
  8.  How can you calculate the number of neutrons in an atom?


Review Worksheet


How are electrons arranged in an atom?
  1.  How many electrons can be held in the K, L, M levels?
  2.  What is the electron cloud?
  3.  What is the Electron Dot Diagram?
 

What is a compound?  Lesson Review

  1.  What are compounds made up of?
  2.  What do water and hydrogen create?
  3. Are the properties of a compound the same as  the properties of its elements?
  4.  When a an unknown solid is heated, two DIFFERENT gases are formed. Is the solid a compound or an element?  Explain.


What is a molecule?
  1.  Define molecule
  2.  What is a molecule made up of?
  3.  How many atoms are there in a molecule of water, salt, and sugar?
  4.  What is a diatomic molecule?
  5.  What does ratio mean? Give three examples.
What are mixtures?     Lesson Review
  1.  Define mixture.
  2.  What are the properties of a mixture like?
  3.  How are mixtures separated?  How does that differ from compound?
  4.  How are ratios different in compounds as compared to mixtures?
  5.  How could you separate a mixture of salt and water?  Iron and sand?
  6.  When you mix a particular poisonous gas, with a flammable metal, a white crystalline solid is formed that is neither flammable nor poisonous.  Is it a mixture or a compound?  Explain.

What is a Solution?  Lesson Review

  1. What is the solvent
  2. What is the solute
  3. What is the difference between soluble and insoluble
  4. How does Acid Rain form?

What are the properties of solutions?  Lesson Review

  1. What is a saturated solution?
  2. Contrast dilute and concentrated solutions.
  3. What effect do solutes have the Freezing Point and Boiling Points of the solvent?

 

Chemical vs. Physical Changes (& Atoms)

 

Key Idea 3:  Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

 Performance Indicator 3.2:   Distinguish between chemical and physical changes. 

Major Understandings: 

3.2a During a physical change a substance keeps its chemical composition and properties. Examples of physical changes include freezing, melting, condensation, boiling, evaporation, tearing, and crushing. 

3.2b Mixtures are physical combinations of materials and can be separated by physical means. 

3.2c During a chemical change, substances react in characteristic ways to form new substances with different physical and chemical properties. Examples of chemical changes include burning of wood, cooking of an egg, rusting of iron, and souring of milk. 

3.2d Substances are often placed in categories if they react in similar ways. Examples include metals, nonmetals, and noble gases. 

3.2e The Law of Conservation of Mass states that during an ordinary chemical reaction matter cannot be created or destroyed. In chemical reactions, the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products.

 

Performance Indicator 3.3:   Develop mental models to explain common chemical reactions and                          changes in states of matter.

 Major Understandings:

 3.3a All matter is made up of atoms. Atoms are far too small to see with a light microscope.

 3.3b Atoms and molecules are perpetually in motion. The greater the temperature, the greater the motion.

 3.3c Atoms may join together in well-defined molecules or may be arranged in regular geometric patterns.

 3.3d Interactions among atoms and/or molecules result in chemical reactions.

 3.3e The atoms of any one element are different from the atoms of other elements

.3.3f There are more than 100 elements. Elements combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds that account for all living and nonliving substances. Few elements are found in their pure form.

 3.3g The periodic table is one useful model for classifying elements. The periodic table can be used to predict properties of elements (metals, nonmetals, noble gases).

 

 

VOCABULARY:  Chemical vs. Physical Changes (Atoms)

 

 

3.2

d

25

categorizing substances

3.2

a

25

chemical changes

3.2

a

 

chemical composition

3.2

c

25

chemical properties

3.2

e

 

equals

3.2

 

 

evaporation

3.2

a

 

freezing

3.2

a

25

physical changes

3.2

c

 

physical properties

3.2

e

 

products

3.2

e

 

reactants

3.2

a

 

condensation

3.2

e

25

conservation of mass

3.2

e

 

Law of Conservation of Mass

3.2

a

 

melting

3.2

b

25

mixtures

3.2

d

 

substances

3.3

d

25

atom interaction

3.3

d

27

chemical reactions

3.3

g

 

classifying elements

3.3

c

25

geometric patterns of atoms

3.3

g

 

noble gas

3.3

f

 

nonliving substance

3.3

g

 

nonmetals

3.3

g

25

periodic table

3.3

f

25

compounds

3.3

f

25

element

3.3

e

25

element, compounds

3.3

f

 

living substance

3.3

a

25

matter

3.3

g

 

metals

3.3

b

25

molecular motion

3.3

b

 

molecules

3.3

 

 

atoms