The Physical Setting Vocabulary.

Required Vocabulary

Absorbs- To take in
Action-A movement or a series of movements. A physical change, as in position, mass, or energy, that an object or a system undergoes.
AgentsA force or substance that causes a change
AltitudeThe height of a thing above a reference level, especially above sea level or above the earth's surface. Astronomy. The angular distance of a celestial object above the horizon.
Apparent Motion
Asteriod- small planets that circle the sun in a belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
Atom-Smallest unit still showing properties of the element. Protons and Neutrons in
Attract- To come together. "Opposites Attract"
Attractive forces- Forces that cause the attraction of objects. (objects come tgether)
Axis of Rotation- The point at which the Earth revolves. The North and South poles are the Earths axis of rotation

Balanced- The forces acting on an object are equal. The object show no change in motion.
BiomassThe total mass of living matter within a given part of environmental region.
Boiling- The process of turning a liquid into a gas.
Boiling Point- The temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas.
Buoyancy- The upward force that a fluid exerts on an object less dense than the fluid. The tendency or capacity to remain afloat in a liquid or rise in air or gas.

Carbon Dioxide A colorless, odorless, incombustible gas, CO2, formed during respiration, combustion, and organic decomposition and used in food refrigeration, carbonated beverages, inert atmospheres, fire extinguishers, and aerosols.
Celestial Objects- star, fixed star, heavenly body, celestial body, luminary.
Characteristics- A feature that helps to identify, tell apart, or describe recognizably; a distinguishing mark or trait.
Chemical Changes- Changes that cannot be changed by physical means. Ex. Rusting of a nail.
Chemical Property- a property related to an object that cannot be changed by physical means
Chemical Reaction- any process by which atoms or groups of atoms interact, resulting in a change in the molecular composition of substances.

  1. The act or result of classifying.
  2. The systematic grouping of organisms into categories on the basis of evolutionary or structural relationships between them

Classify- To arrange or organize according to class or category.
Collide- To come together with violent, direct impact.
Comet -Objects consisting of silicate rock and metal particles embedded in ices.
Compare- To check two items, such as words, files, or numeric values, so as to determine whether they are the same or different.
Complex Mixture-
Component- a small part of a whole.
Compound- the combination of two or more types of elements.
Condensation- the process be which a gas is changes phases into a liquid.
Conduction- Transfer of heat by collision of molecules.
Conductivity- The ability or power to conduct or transmit heat, electricity, or sound.
Conservation- to save.
Continents- the principal land masses. Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.
Contract- To come together. As heat is removed, an object contracts or gets smaller. (Except water from 0 to –4 degrees Celsius.)
ConvectionTransfer of heat in liquids and gases by means of currents.
Coordinate System- A method of representing points in a space of given dimensions by coordinates.
Cyclical- Relating to a circle. To move in a circular motion. A circular pattern.

Day- he 24-hour period during which Earth completes one rotation on its axis. Any celestial body making a similar rotation.
Density- mass per unit volume of a substance. Each substance has a density all its own, used for identification purposes.
Describe- To express an idea
Direction- An act of motion. Moving from point a to point b. A line leading to a place or point.
Displaced- To take the place of. Water Displacement Method- using the graduated cylinder to calculate an irregularly shaped objects volume. Final volume – Initial volume.
Dissolved- To reduce (solid matter) to liquid form; melt. To break into component parts; disintegrate.

Earth - The third planet from the sun, having a period of revolution about the sun of 365.26 days at a distance of approximately 149 million kilometers (92.96 million miles), an axial rotation period of 23 hours 56.07 minutes, an average radius of 6,374 kilometers (3,959 miles), and a mass of approximately 5.974 × 1024 kilograms (13.17 × 1024 pounds).
Earth’s Crust- outer layer of the earth.
Earthquake- A sudden movement of the earth's crust caused by the release of stress built up along geologic faults or by volcanic activity.
Earthquake wave- Primary Wave (longitudinal wave) Secondary Wave (transverse wave)
Eclipse- To darken or dim. Lunar Eclipse- blocking or dimming of the light that illuminates the moon.. Solar Eclipse- blocking or dimming of the suns light
Efficient- Ration of work output vs. work input.
Electric Current- the flow of electrons.
Electrical Energy- a form of energy given by the movement of electrons.
Electricity- movement of electrons.
Electromagnetic Energy- Energy produced by the change in motion of a charged particle. Electromagnetic Spectrum.
Electron- Negatively charged particle. Found outside of the nucleus in an atom.
Element- Building block of matter. Smallest unit.
Emit- to give off.
Energy- ability of matter to perform work as the result of motion or position.
Environment- The combination of external physical conditions that affect and influence the growth, development, and survival of organisms.
Erosion- The process that moves soil and rock and reshapes the land.
Eruption- To force out or release something, such as steam or lava.
Evaporation- to change into a gas
Evolve- To develop or achieve gradually
Expand- To become larger. As objects are heated they expand, with the exception of water. Water expands from 0 to –4 degrees Celsius.

Faulted- A fracture in the continuity of a rock formation caused by a shifting or dislodging of the earth's crust.
Filter- A porous (leaky) material through which a liquid or gas is passed in order to separate the fluid from other matter.
Filtration- The process by which we separate matter.
Folded- To form bends in a stratum of rock.
Force- A push or pull. A force can start, stop or change direction of motion.
Fossil- remains or traces of a once-living organism, preserved in the earth.
Fossil Correlations
Fossil Fuels- A deposit (hydrocarbon), such as petroleum, coal, or natural gas, derived from living matter of a previous geologic time and used for fuel. Fuel coming from “fossils”
Freezing- The process of changing a liquid to a solid.
Freezing Point- The temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid.
Friction- A force that opposes motion. "Rubbing" Biproduct of friction: HEAT.

Gamma Rays- High energy, short wavelength waves of the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma Rays are used to kill cancer cells.
Gas- A phase of matter such as “air”. Slow moving low energy particles that are spaced farther apart then a liquid or solid.
Geometric- a regular shape or pattern
Geothermal Energy- internal heat energy of the earth.
Glacier- A huge mass of ice slowly flowing over a land mass, formed from compacted snow in an area where snow accumulation exceeds melting and sublimation.
Gravitational Force- The force of attraction between two objects. The strength of the force depends upon two things: 1) Mass of the object 2) Distance between objects. ie. The larger the mass of the object the stronger the gravitational force acting on that object. The closer together two objects are the stonger the gravitational force between the two objects.
Gravity- The force of attraction between two objects.

Hardness- The relative resistance of a mineral to scratching (relating to mineral identification.)
Heat Flow- heat energy moves from warm to cold.
Heat- A form of energy. Makes molecules move faster.
Horizon- The apparent intersection of the earth and sky

Inclined Plane- A simple machine. A slanted surface used to move objects.
Infrared Light- Part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Lower energy than Red visible light.
Inner Core-
Insoluble- That which cannot be dissolved
Interaction- To act on each other

Kintetic Energy- Energy of motion.
Latitude- The angular distance north or south of the earth's equator, measured in degrees along a meridian
Law of Conservation- Energy can neither be created or destroyed, it can only change forms.
Lever- A simple machine. A rigid bar that rotates around a fixed point. Examples: See-saw, Scissors, Baseball Bat, Wheel Barrow.
Light- A form of energy produced by a change of motion in a charged particle. A packet of light energy- Photon.
Light Microscope-
Liquid- One of the four phases of matter. More energy than a solid but less than a gas. Particles a re packed closer than a gas but not as close as a solid.
Lithosphere- The solid part of the earth. The rocky crust of the earth.
Lubrication- To make slippery or smooth. Used to reduce friction.

Machine- A simple device, such as a lever, a pulley, or an inclined plane, that alters the Strength or direction of an applied force; a simple machine.
Magnet- An object surrounded by a magnetic (attractive or repulsive) field.
Magnetism-Force of attraction and repulsion
Mantle- The layer of the earth between the crust and the core.
Mass- How many particles are in a piece of matter.
Matter- anything that has mass and volume. ie. Solid, Liquid and Gas.
Mechanical Motion- Motion of and relating to physical energy. Examples: wind, pedal power, rowing a boat.
Melting- The process by which a solid changes state to a liquid.
Metal- The left side of the staircase on the Periodic table. Elements that usually have a shiny surface, are generally good conductors of heat and electricity, and can be melted or fused, hammered into thin sheets, or drawn into wires.
Metamorphic Rock- Rock formed from existing rock; heat and pressure cause the minerals to form new combinations or new crystals.
Meteor Showers- A large number of meteors that appear together and seem to come from the same area in the sky.
Mixture- A physical combination of two or more types of matter. Homogeneous- looks the same throughout. Heterogeneous- looks different throughout. You can still see the individual parts.
Model- a drawing or small scale building to represent another object.
Molecule- The smallest particle into which an element or a compound can be divided without changing its chemical and physical properties. One molecule of water= H2O
Moon- The natural satellite of Earth, visible by reflection of sunlight and having a slightly elliptical orbit
Motion- The process of changing position or place.
Mountains- A natural elevation of the earth's surface having considerable mass

Neutron- Non-charged particle in the nucleus of an atom. To find the number of neutrons: subtract the atomic mass and the atomic number.
Nitrogen- nonmetallic element that constitutes nearly four fifths of the air by volume.
Noble Gas- The farthest column to the right of the staircase on the Periodic Table. Non reactive gases.
Non-metal- Located just to the right of the staircase on the Periodic table. Lack the physical and chemical properties of metals.
Nonrenewable resources- Natural resources that cannot be replaced or can only be replaced very slowly.
North, South, East West- Cardinal Points. (Never, Eat, Soggy, Waffles.)

Observe- To make a systematic or scientific observation.
Ocean Basin-
Orbit- The path that a planet follows as it revolves around the sun.
Orbiting- The process of revolving around the path.
Outer Core-

Particles- A very small or the smallest possible amount.
Periodic Table- An arrangement of the elements according to their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties are in the same column.
Perspective- The relationship of aspects of a subject to each other and to a whole.
Phase- One of the cyclically recurring apparent forms of the moon or a planet. Any of the forms or states, solid, liquid, gas, or plasma, in which matter can exist.
Phase change- The change of state or phase, solid, liquid or gas.
Phases of the Moon- refers to amount of moon visible by sun reflecting off of the surface.
Physical Change- Change in appearance. No change in chemical composition. Can still be returned to original state by physical means.
Physical Property- Identification of matter based on physical appearance.
Planet- A non-luminous celestial body larger than an asteroid or a comet. The planets in our solar system: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.
Plasma- It is a phase of matter distinct from solids, liquids, and normal gases. An electrically neutral, highly ionized gas composed of ions, electrons, and neutral particles.
Poles- The region of attraction on a magnet. Region on a magnet where the force of attraction is the strongest. Earths poles are the Magnetic North and South Poles. Not to be confused with the geographic poles where the earth rotates.
Position- A place or location.
Pressure- The application of continuous force by one body on another that it is touching.
Process- steps followed.
Projectile- A fired, thrown, or otherwise propelled object, such as a bullet, having no capacity for self-propulsion.
Properties- A characteristic trait.
Proton- A positively charged sub-atomic particle.
Pull- To apply force to so as to cause motion toward the source of the force.
Pulley- A simple machine. A wheel that spins on an axle with a rope that runs over a wheel. Examples: clothesline, sails, flagpole, dog lead.
Pure From- elements and compounds are found in their pure states.
Push- To apply pressure against for the purpose of moving.

Radiation- A method of heat transfer through empty space.
Rate Reactivity-
Reflection- Bouncing back of a wave. ie. echo or reflection in a mirror.
Refraction- Bending of a light wave as it travels through a barrier. The wave will change speed and direction.
Relative motion- Motion whose distance and direction are relative to a starting point.
Renewable energy- Energy that can be renewed
Repel- To move away from. "Likes Repel"
Rest- No energy. Baseline. Termination or absence of motion.
Revolution- Orbital motion about a point.
Rise- The appearance of the sun or other celestial body above the horizon.
Rock forming Minerals
Rotation- The act or process of turning around a center or an axis.

Seasons- One of the four natural divisions of the year, spring, summer, fall, and winter.
Sediment- Solid fragments of inorganic or organic material that come from the weathering of rock and are carried and deposited by wind, water, or ice.
Sedimentary Rock- rock composed of geologically reworked materials, formed by the accumulation and consolidation of mineral and particulate matter deposited by water, wind, or glacial ice.
Separate- To set or keep apart.
Set- To disappear below the horizon. To diminish or decline; wane.
Simple Machine- A simple device, such as a lever, a pulley, or an inclined plane, that alters the Strength or direction of an applied force; a simple machine.
Solar Energy- Renewable energy source from the sun.
Solar System- The sun together with the nine planets and all other celestial bodies that orbit the sun.
Solid- One of the four phases of matter. Lowest energy, slowest moving and the particles are packed the closest.
Solubility- The amount of a substance that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent.
Sound- A form of energy caused by the vibrations in matter.
Speed- Distance traveled in a certain amount of time.
Star- A self-luminous celestial body consisting of a mass of gas held together by its own gravity.
Straight Line- Time and Distance graph shows constant speed. Speed and time graph show no change in motion.
Streak- The color of the powder that is left when a mineral is rubbed on a rough surface.
Sublimation- The process of a substance turning from a solid to a gas.
Sun- A star that is the basis of the solar system and that sustains life on Earth, being the source of heat and light.

Temperature- A degree of hottness.
Theory of Plate Tectonics- Movement of plates on the earths surface. Continental drift. The earth's crust is formed of 13 semirigid plates, the boundaries of which are zones of tectonic activity, where earthquakes and volcanic eruptions tend to occur.
Tides- Changes in local sea level caused by the pull of the moon and sun.
Tilt- “a slant” The earth is at a 28 degree tilt.
Trace Gasessmall amount of gases found in the atomsohere
Transformation- A marked change, as in appearance or character.
Transmit- To send information over a communications line or a circuit.

Ultraviolet Light- Light energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Energy higher than that of visible light and less that of X-Rays. Examples: Sun Burn, Sun Tan and Skin Cancer due to long time exposure.
Unaided Eye- naked eye
Unbalanced- not balanced. Unbalanced forces cause motion.
Universe- All the matter and energy that exists; all the stars, planets, dust, gases and energy in space.

Vacuum- empty space.
Vaporization- The process of turning into a gas.
Vibration- To throb, pulse, or move with regularity. Vibrations cause sound Energy.
Vibrational Disturbance- Sound, earthquake.
Visible Light- The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum visible to the eye. Colors: Red, Orange, Yellow, Green , Blue, Indigo, Violet.

Water- Colorless, odorless liquid. A body of water such as a sea, lake, river, or stream.
Water Cycle- The cycle of evaporation and condensation that controls the distribution of Earth's water as it evaporates from bodies of water, condenses, precipitates, and returns to those bodies of water.
Water Vapor- gaseous state of water.
Wave- A disturbance that travels through matter.
Wavelength- Distance from one identical point on a wave to another. ie. Crest to crest or trough to trough.
Waxing- Phase of the moon. A waxing moon is increasing its visibility towards a full moon.
Weathering- The process that breaks down rocks into smaller fragments, eventually producing soil.
Wheel and Axle - A simple machine in which the wheel is attached to the axle so they move together. I.e. A screwdriver, doorknob, and steering wheel.
Work- Moving an object some distance using a force. Two conditions must be met in order for work to be done: 1) An object must move. 2) A force must act on the object in the direction the object moves.

X-Rays- Part of the electromagnetic spectrum with more energy than ultraviolet light and less energy that gamma rays. Used to see inside the body.
Year- The period of time during which the earth completes a single revolution around the sun, consisting of 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, and 12 seconds of mean solar time.