USING THE ESRT
Use the Earth Science Reference Tables to answer the following questions: 

Page 1 (cover) Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6/7 Page 8/9a
Page 8/9b
Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16

Cover (page 1): 

1. Measure the width of this page to the nearest 0.1 cm.___________________ 

2. How much of a 400-gram sample of K40 is left after 2 half-lives? ___________________   

3. During which phase change is the most energy gained?__________________   

4. From the specific heat chart... which material heats and cools the fastest?_________________________   

5. A material has a density of 4.5g/ml and a mass of 2.6grams, what is the volume?__________________  

6. What is the percentage error if a student calculates the Earth's radius to be 6400km? __________________  

7. What is the orbital eccentricity of a planet if the foci distance is 7.6 cm and the major axis is 15.2 cm? ______________________________  

8. On a topo map. Point A is 456 meters in elevation. Point B is 1256 meters. They are 12.2 km apart.  What is the gradient?____________________________ 

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PAGE 2: 

9. Locate the approximate latitude and longitude of the following landscape regions in New York State: (also use page 3) 

       a.  Tug Hill Plateau ________________lat._  ________________long. 

       b.  Taconic Mountains ________________lat._  ________________long. 

       c.  Triassic / Newark Lowlands ________________lat._  ________________long. 

10. Within what landscape is Manhattan Island located?___________________ 

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11. Where are the youngest rocks in New York State?_____________ 

12. Where are the oldest rocks in New York State?_____________ 

13. Which region(s) of New York State would have little evidence of fossils?__________ 

14. Which city is located closest to 43˚N and 77˚38' W?_____________ 

15. How old are the oldest sedimentary rocks in New York State?_____________ 

16. How old are the oldest rocks that are found in New York State?_____________ 

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17. Describe the motions of the Gulf Stream._______________________ 

18. In what direction does the California current flow?__________________  

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19.  List the major plates of the world: __________________   __________________   __________________    

__________________   __________________   __________________   __________________    

__________________   __________________   __________________    

20. List the major plate boundaries due to plate tectonics (draw an arrow diagram showing the relative motion of the plates at each boundary). 

______________________________________________________________________________   

______________________________________________________________________________ 

______________________________________________________________________________ 

21. Describe the relationship between the tectonics map and the locations of volcanic activity?  

______________________________________________________________________________ 

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22. If a stream's velocity increases from 20 cm/sec to 100 cm/sec, what sediments can be carried? 

_______________________________________________________________ 

23. A cementation/compaction of a particle .055 cm in diameter will most likely form what type of rock? 

____________________________  

24. Evaporites can be listed as minerals and rocks. How are they formed?_______________________________ 

25. Sandstone differs from limestone based on particle size. How is their point of origin different? 

26. What minerals are found in granite?__________________________________________________________

27. How does rhyolite differ from granite?_______________________________________________________ 

28. Which minerals are not present in felsic type igneous rocks but are present in mafic type igneous rocks?   __________________________________________

29. How do felsic and mafic igneous rocks differ in density, color, and mineral content?   _________________________________________________________________________________________ 

_________________________________________________________________________________________ 

30. What process must a rock undergo in order to become igneous?____________________________________ 

31. What process must a rock undergo in order to become metamorphosed?______________________________ 

32. List all the terms associated with the formation of sedimentary rocks._________________________________ 

33. What are the two major divisions of sedimentary rocks?___________________________________________ 

34. How is a breccia different from a conglomerate?__________________________________________________ 

35. How is rock gypsum formed?________________________________________________________________ 

36. What is the composition of rock salt?__________________ 

37. How is chemical and fossil limestone different?________________________________________________ 

38. What are the main types of metamorphism?___________________________________________________ 

39. What are the two major textures of metamorphic rocks? 

40. Complete:

                       metamorphic rock ---------------> parent rock 

                                   slate                                       _________________ 

                                  marble                                     _________________

                                 quartzite                                   _________________ 

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Page 8 and Page 9 

41. During which time period were trilobites common?______________________________________________ 

42. What is the approximate age of the Appalachian plateau?_________________________________________ 

43. Which span of geologic time is the longest?___________________________________________________ 

44. For how long did dinosaurs roam the earth?___________________________________________________ 

45. How long ago did dinosaurs become extinct?__________________________________________________ 

46. Which is the most recent time period where North America and Africa are believed to be separated? 

__________________________________________________________ 

47. Describe the motions of North America from the Ordovician to the Tertiary.__________________________ 

48. When was the Taconic Orogeny and how did it happen?____________________________________ 

49. When did the Atlantic Ocean started to open?____________________________________ 

50. What is the official fossil of NYS (see cover)?____________________________________ 

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51. Which earth layer is the most dense ?____________________________________ 

52. What is the approximate pressure at the mantle-outer core interface?________________________________ 

53. In which strata of the earth is the Earth' s temperature change the greatest?___________________________ 

54. Describe where the Moho is located?_______________________________________________________

55. How thick is the asthenosphere?___________________________________________________________ 

56. What does ultramafic mean?______________________________________________________________ 

57. What is the composition and phase of the inner core?____________________________________ 

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58. What is the scale on the y-axis (earthquake chart)?  _____________________________________________ 

59. What is the scale on the x-axis (earthquake chart)?  _____________________________________________ 

60. If P waves arrive 5 minutes and 20 seconds before S waves from an earthquake, what is the distance of the observer from the epicenter? 

____________________________________ 

61. If the epicenter is 2.2 x 103 km from the observer, how long did it take the P-wave to travel to the station? 

_________________________, S-Wave: _________________________________ 

62. What is the most common element, by volume, in the earth's crust?___________________________________ 

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63. Find the dew point if the wet bulb reading is 3˚ C and the dry bulb is 6˚C_______________________________ 

64. Find the air temp. (dry bulb) if the dew point is 15˚C and the wet bulb depression is 5˚C__________________ 

65. What is the relative humidity if the air temperature is 10˚C and the dew point is 6˚C?__________________ 

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66. Find the equivalent values of the following:           

            a) 64˚ F = __________ ˚C                                            b) 64˚ F = __________ ˚ K

 

            c) 32˚ F = __________ ˚C                                            d) 71˚C = __________ ˚F 

67. a. From what direction is the wind blowing on the station model? ____________________________________ 

      b. What is the wind speed in knots on the station model?____________________________________ 

 

68. What is the present weather symbol for thunderstorms?___________________________________________ 

69.  Draw and label each type of weather front, determine where the cold and warm air masses are in relation to these frontal boundaries: 

 

 

 

 

 

70. a) What happens to air pressure as atmospheric altitude increases? ___________________________________ 

b) convert: 30" Hg = ___________________ mb (pressure) 

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71. In the atmosphere, all of our weather is found below in the ________________________________________ 

72. Which form of energy has a wavelength of 10-4 meters in size?_____________________________________ 

73. At which zone in the atmosphere does the temperature go over 50˚C?________________________________ 

74. Describe the relationship of winds and wet and moist climates._____________________________________ 

75. Which latitudes are associated with high pressure?___________________, Low pressure _______________ 

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76. Which planet has an orbit shaped most like a circle?______________________________________________ 

77. What planet has the longest period of revolution?________________________________________________ 

78.Which planet is the most dense?____________________________________________________________ 

79. a) What color star is the Sun?_________________, Sirius _________________,
Betelgeuse _______________. 

            b) What part of the H-R Diagram to you find the largest stars? ______________, smallest _____________. 

80. What two variables are used to classify stars?__________________________________________________

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81. What mineral is dark and cleaves into sheets? _________________________________________________ 

82. What metallic mineral has a red streak?______________________________________________________ 

83. List two properties of olivine. 1. ___________________________ 2. ______________________________ 

84.  What are the chemical symbols for: Iron ________, Potassium ________, Sodium ________, Sulfur ________ 

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85.  Which three fossils might appear to have been related? 

_____________________, _________________________, _________________________.

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