Use the Earth Science Reference Tables to answer the following questions: 

Page 1 (cover) Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6/7 Page 8/9a
Page 8/9b
Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16

Cover (page 1): 

1. Measure the width of this page to the nearest 0.1 cm.___________________ 

2. How much of a 400-gram sample of K40 is left after 2 half-lives? ___________________   

3. During which phase change is the most energy gained?__________________   

4. From the specific heat chart... which material heats and cools the fastest?_________________________   

5. A material has a density of 4.5g/ml and a mass of 2.6grams, what is the volume?__________________  

6. What is the percentage error if a student calculates the Earth's radius to be 6400km? __________________  

7. What is the orbital eccentricity of a planet if the foci distance is 7.6 cm and the major axis is 15.2 cm? ______________________________  

8. On a topo map. Point A is 456 meters in elevation. Point B is 1256 meters. They are 12.2 km apart.  What is the gradient?____________________________ 

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9. Locate the approximate latitude and longitude of the following landscape regions in New York State: (also use page 3) 

       a.  Tug Hill Plateau ________________lat._  ________________long. 

       b.  Taconic Mountains ________________lat._  ________________long. 

       c.  Triassic / Newark Lowlands ________________lat._  ________________long. 

10. Within what landscape is Manhattan Island located?___________________ 

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11. Where are the youngest rocks in New York State?_____________ 

12. Where are the oldest rocks in New York State?_____________ 

13. Which region(s) of New York State would have little evidence of fossils?__________ 

14. Which city is located closest to 43˚N and 77˚38' W?_____________ 

15. How old are the oldest sedimentary rocks in New York State?_____________ 

16. How old are the oldest rocks that are found in New York State?_____________ 

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17. Describe the motions of the Gulf Stream._______________________ 

18. In what direction does the California current flow?__________________  

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19.  List the major plates of the world: __________________   __________________   __________________    

__________________   __________________   __________________   __________________    

__________________   __________________   __________________    

20. List the major plate boundaries due to plate tectonics (draw an arrow diagram showing the relative motion of the plates at each boundary). 




21. Describe the relationship between the tectonics map and the locations of volcanic activity?  


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22. If a stream's velocity increases from 20 cm/sec to 100 cm/sec, what sediments can be carried? 


23. A cementation/compaction of a particle .055 cm in diameter will most likely form what type of rock? 


24. Evaporites can be listed as minerals and rocks. How are they formed?_______________________________ 

25. Sandstone differs from limestone based on particle size. How is their point of origin different? 

26. What minerals are found in granite?__________________________________________________________

27. How does rhyolite differ from granite?_______________________________________________________ 

28. Which minerals are not present in felsic type igneous rocks but are present in mafic type igneous rocks?   __________________________________________

29. How do felsic and mafic igneous rocks differ in density, color, and mineral content?   _________________________________________________________________________________________ 


30. What process must a rock undergo in order to become igneous?____________________________________ 

31. What process must a rock undergo in order to become metamorphosed?______________________________ 

32. List all the terms associated with the formation of sedimentary rocks._________________________________ 

33. What are the two major divisions of sedimentary rocks?___________________________________________ 

34. How is a breccia different from a conglomerate?__________________________________________________ 

35. How is rock gypsum formed?________________________________________________________________ 

36. What is the composition of rock salt?__________________ 

37. How is chemical and fossil limestone different?________________________________________________ 

38. What are the main types of metamorphism?___________________________________________________ 

39. What are the two major textures of metamorphic rocks? 

40. Complete:

                       metamorphic rock ---------------> parent rock 

                                   slate                                       _________________ 

                                  marble                                     _________________

                                 quartzite                                   _________________ 

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Page 8 and Page 9 

41. During which time period were trilobites common?______________________________________________ 

42. What is the approximate age of the Appalachian plateau?_________________________________________ 

43. Which span of geologic time is the longest?___________________________________________________ 

44. For how long did dinosaurs roam the earth?___________________________________________________ 

45. How long ago did dinosaurs become extinct?__________________________________________________ 

46. Which is the most recent time period where North America and Africa are believed to be separated? 


47. Describe the motions of North America from the Ordovician to the Tertiary.__________________________ 

48. When was the Taconic Orogeny and how did it happen?____________________________________ 

49. When did the Atlantic Ocean started to open?____________________________________ 

50. What is the official fossil of NYS (see cover)?____________________________________ 

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51. Which earth layer is the most dense ?____________________________________ 

52. What is the approximate pressure at the mantle-outer core interface?________________________________ 

53. In which strata of the earth is the Earth' s temperature change the greatest?___________________________ 

54. Describe where the Moho is located?_______________________________________________________

55. How thick is the asthenosphere?___________________________________________________________ 

56. What does ultramafic mean?______________________________________________________________ 

57. What is the composition and phase of the inner core?____________________________________ 

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58. What is the scale on the y-axis (earthquake chart)?  _____________________________________________ 

59. What is the scale on the x-axis (earthquake chart)?  _____________________________________________ 

60. If P waves arrive 5 minutes and 20 seconds before S waves from an earthquake, what is the distance of the observer from the epicenter? 


61. If the epicenter is 2.2 x 103 km from the observer, how long did it take the P-wave to travel to the station? 

_________________________, S-Wave: _________________________________ 

62. What is the most common element, by volume, in the earth's crust?___________________________________ 

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63. Find the dew point if the wet bulb reading is 3˚ C and the dry bulb is 6˚C_______________________________ 

64. Find the air temp. (dry bulb) if the dew point is 15˚C and the wet bulb depression is 5˚C__________________ 

65. What is the relative humidity if the air temperature is 10˚C and the dew point is 6˚C?__________________ 

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66. Find the equivalent values of the following:           

            a) 64˚ F = __________ ˚C                                            b) 64˚ F = __________ ˚ K


            c) 32˚ F = __________ ˚C                                            d) 71˚C = __________ ˚F 

67. a. From what direction is the wind blowing on the station model? ____________________________________ 

      b. What is the wind speed in knots on the station model?____________________________________ 


68. What is the present weather symbol for thunderstorms?___________________________________________ 

69.  Draw and label each type of weather front, determine where the cold and warm air masses are in relation to these frontal boundaries: 






70. a) What happens to air pressure as atmospheric altitude increases? ___________________________________ 

b) convert: 30" Hg = ___________________ mb (pressure) 

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71. In the atmosphere, all of our weather is found below in the ________________________________________ 

72. Which form of energy has a wavelength of 10-4 meters in size?_____________________________________ 

73. At which zone in the atmosphere does the temperature go over 50˚C?________________________________ 

74. Describe the relationship of winds and wet and moist climates._____________________________________ 

75. Which latitudes are associated with high pressure?___________________, Low pressure _______________ 

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76. Which planet has an orbit shaped most like a circle?______________________________________________ 

77. What planet has the longest period of revolution?________________________________________________ 

78.Which planet is the most dense?____________________________________________________________ 

79. a) What color star is the Sun?_________________, Sirius _________________,
Betelgeuse _______________. 

            b) What part of the H-R Diagram to you find the largest stars? ______________, smallest _____________. 

80. What two variables are used to classify stars?__________________________________________________

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81. What mineral is dark and cleaves into sheets? _________________________________________________ 

82. What metallic mineral has a red streak?______________________________________________________ 

83. List two properties of olivine. 1. ___________________________ 2. ______________________________ 

84.  What are the chemical symbols for: Iron ________, Potassium ________, Sodium ________, Sulfur ________ 

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85.  Which three fossils might appear to have been related? 

_____________________, _________________________, _________________________.

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